Cite Sources

All assignments (with the exception of Twitter) must fully and properly cite all sources using Modern Language Association (MLA) citation format.

The purpose of citations is to let your reader know what sources you are drawing on when you make claims about something, and to give them all the information they need to track down those sources. Citations are how scholars find new sources for their research–we read one journal article on sex tourism, for example, and then can track down all of the sources that the author cites for 5-30 more sources on the same topic. You will be doing this for your final project, and it is one of the most useful things you can learn in college.

Any ideas, quotations, or concepts that you learn about from sources should be cited, and any claims you make should be grounded in cited scholarly sources. This means that any lecture you hear, book you read, article you draw on, or film you watch should be cited.

You need two types of citations for each assignment: in-text parenthetical citations AND a works cited list.

For parenthetical citations:

  • Directly after the quoted, summarized, or paraphrased material, you should include a parenthetical citation formatted like this: (Butler 34). This is the author’s last name and the page number of the material in question.
  • Parenthetical citations should correspond to entries in the works cited list–so with the above example, the reader of your assignment should be able to look at your works cited list and find the entry for Butler, which will give the reader the full citation for your source.

For a works cited list (previously called a bibliography):

  • At the end of every assignment, include a section titled “Works Cited.”
  • Enter ALL and ONLY the sources you mention in your assignment. Every single book, book chapter, film, YouTube video, website, journal article, image, lecture, etc. that you mention should have an entry.
  • Works cited lists should be alphabetized by the author’s/creator’s last name. If there is no author/creator of a work that you can identify, the entry is alphabetized by the title of the work.
  • Check out the MLA citation guide link here for information and examples of how to cite different types of sources (books, journal articles, films, websites, lectures, conference papers, book chapters, etc.).

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